Prof. Dr. Chhatra Mani Sharma and his team published a paper titled ‘Spatio-temporal hydrochemistry of two selected Ramsar sites (Rara and Ghodaghodi) of west Nepal’. The article can be read and downloaded from the link


The present study was conducted in two Ramsar sites, Lake Rara and Lake Ghodaghodi, of the western Nepal covering pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of 2019 to find out the dynamics of the hydrochemistry. A total of 11 major ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, F−, Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, NO2−, HCO3−) along with six on-site parameters (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity) were sampled in replicates from 18 sites in Lake Rara and 13 sites in Lake Ghodaghodi. Major ions were analyzed using ion chromatography including field and procedural blanks to maintain quality standards, whereas on-site parameters were measured by using standard multi-meter probes. The most dominant cation and anions were Ca2+ and HCO3− in both lakes indicating rock dominance through carbonate weathering as the primary source of dissolved ions in the lake waters. Further analysis indicated that Rara belongs to Ca(Mg)HCO3 and Ghodaghodi belongs to Ca–HCO3 type. The higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl− during the post-monsoon indicates a possibility of long-range marine transport through monsoon precipitation.


Major ions; 

Physicochemical parameters; 

Seasonal variation; 

Water quality